Sunday, May 24, 2020

How Behavioral Economics Theory And The Neoclassical Model...

Do some Social welfare programs perversely harm in the long run to the very people it is intended to help? In the United States, Social welfare or Welfare system is a way the Federal Government, and state governments provide assistance to individuals and families through programs such as health care, food stamps, unemployment compensation, housing assistance and child care assistance. Social programs are a broad collection of many programs, with corresponding mandates and complicated matters; it has poorly managed rules about eligibility, benefit level and subject to fraud, abuse and rising expenditure and moral hazard. From economist point of view, many scholars agreed welfare expenditure is one of the causes of the increasing debt in the nation’s budget deficit. Although it is not very significant if compared other programs, like Defense, which is about 18% of the 2014 GDP. The goal of this paper is to examine how Behavioral Economics Theory and the Neoclassical Model of La bor Supply undermine some of Welfare programs, since their negative effect greater than the positive effect, and this could get worst in the long run. It is argued that the size or transfer programs are responsible for a decline an economic performance, and economic growth directly or indirectly, since poor people who are mainly the workforce are more irrational and inclined to make bad choices. This applies especially to social transfer expenditure like social security, social assistance, andShow MoreRelatedContemporary Issues in Management Accounting211377 Words   |  846 Pagesilluminate practice and to provide ways of improving it. Although always appealing to his economic understandings, he has been open to a wide variety of other ideas, recognizing their intellectual strengths and capabilities rather than making artificial distinctions between what is acceptable and what is not. He also has contributed widely to the accounting literature, taking forward the British traditio n of economic theorizing in financial accounting as well as being a constant source of creative thinking

Monday, May 18, 2020

Analysis Of `` Annabel Lee By Edgar Allan Poe - 1235 Words

But we loved with a love that was more than love (Poe Line 9). Love is one of the most important things to have in life, whether it is with family, friends, or that special someone, but that does not mean it will be perfect because everyone has problems. Love can be complicated; it may not be defined so easily or fit the normal standard of love. Sometimes love comes with a desire or an obsession. The inspiration of Annabel Lee by Edgar Allan Poe was inspired by the women that had passed away in his life, but since Poe had written the poem after his wife s death, it is probably more about her. In Porphyria s Lover by Robert Browning, there was no real inspiration except the fact he was just very into dramatic love. Robert Browning in the impulsive Porphyria s Lover and Edgar Allan Poe in the somber Annabel Lee explore the theme of complicated love all throughout their poems and also their use of visual imagery, metaphors, and similes. Edgar Allan Poe was born January 19, 1809, in Boston Massachusetts. At the young age of three years old, Poe lost his parents in a sudden untimely death. After the loss of his parents, Poe was adopted by Mr. and Mrs. John Allan. Poe was able to attend some of the best schools and was evenly accepted into the University of Virginia in 1825. In 1836, Poe married Virginia, his twelve-year-old cousin. But after 12 years of marriage Virginia, his wife died of tuberculosis in 1847, two years later after her death, Poe passedShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Annabel Lee By Edgar Allan Poe Essay1989 Words   |  8 Pageslove one is gone. In â€Å"Annabel Lee† by Edgar Allan Poe the main character has becomes completely lost in anguish and cannot seem to move on, whereas in â€Å"A valediction; Forbidding Mourning† by John Donne the narrator is accepting of the goodbye because he knows that spiritually they and their love will always be together. The contrasting events that take place are the tragic events after their loved ones being lost, which shows the difference in personalities from authors Poe and Donne and how theyRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Annabel Lee By Edgar Allan Poe936 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Annabel Lee† is a poem written by Edgar Allan Poe about a man’s painful memory of his long-dead love, Annabel Lee. The narrator explains that he an Annabel had a love so intense it made the angels in heaven envious. Out of jealously the angels sent a cold wind that eventually killed Annabel. However, even death could not separate them because their souls are entwined with one another’s. He continues to tell the reader that he still loves her all these years later. In fact he loves her so much heRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Annabel Lee By Edgar Allan Poe990 Words   |  4 PagesIn the poem â€Å"Annabel Lee† by Edgar Allan Poe, he talks about two important characteristics, dead and love. He describes her, as a young woman who is deeply in love with him, and vice versa. There love is unique and strong, and this is the reason why angels and demons are against their happiness, creating envy and jealously. Unfortunately she dies, to what he blames it on the demos who hate them, taking his love away and placing her on a sepulcher. But he makes his point by saying that not even demosRead MoreLiterary Analysis of Annabel Lee by Edgar Allan Poe Essay1313 Words   |  6 PagesAnalyzing of Annabel Lee by Edgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe in this poem â€Å"Annabel Lee† written in 1849, and first published shortly after his death in Sartain’s Union Magazine, is a story of true love and great loss where a man loves a woman so deeply and is devastated when she dies but holds on to that love even after death. No one really knows whom exactly Poe wrote this poem about, whether or not it was actually inspired by someone he truly loved due to his death right after he wrote it. ThereRead MoreAnalysis Of Edgar Allan Poe s The Raven And Annabel Lee884 Words   |  4 PagesWhen studying Edgar Allan Poe’s The Raven and Annabel Lee, the reader is struck by many similarities and differences. Both focus on the sorrow and loss of losing a loved one. Both deal with the heartache and grief associated with the search for understanding why the loss occurred. Both have an almost gothic, sad, unearthly feel to them. However, while the theme of The Raven and Annabel Lee is very similar, Poe uses a ver y different tone in the two poems to portray his feelings. The difference inRead MoreEssay on Edgar Allan Poe: Youth, Beauty, and Death697 Words   |  3 PagesThe relationship with Edgar Allan Poe and the woman in his life – his mother, adoptive mother, and wife, Virginia Clemm – were disastrous (DiLorenzo). Yet, they provided the inspiration for some of the best gothic pieces to date. Poe often combines the romantic, long lasting love in fairy tales and the hard truth of real life. Such elements are portrayed within â€Å"Annabel Lee† and â€Å"Ulalume†. His poems refrain from creating a false paradise, and instead represent an allegory of his tribulations – theRead MoreLiterary Devices Used By Edgar Allan Poe986 Words   |  4 Pagespoet that uses such intricate writing in his poems is Edgar Allan Poe. Edgar Allan Poe uses several different literary devices in his major 1849 poem Annabel Lee. In his text he incorporates theme with imagery, sym bolism, and form. These literary devices help lead the audience to the understanding of the overall meaning of the poem. Edgar Allan Poe s use of symbolism allows for the audience to understand how this gentleman feels about Annabel Lee. In the poem, the author uses symbolism when the narratorRead MoreWhy Should We Care?1748 Words   |  7 PagesWhy Should We Care?: Edgar Allan Poe â€Å"Few creatures of the night have captured [reader’s] imagination[s] like [Edgar Allan Poe]† (â€Å"Vampires†). Poe has fascinated the literary world since he first became known for writing in 1829, when he was just twenty years old (Chronology†). While he is widely known for exploring the macabre, his work is controversial because of its psychologically disturbing nature. Edgar Allan Poe is worth examining as an author because his many contributions to the literaryRead More An Analysis of Edgar Allan Poes Annabel Lee Essay1524 Words   |  7 PagesAn Analysis  of  Edgar Allan Poes Annabel Lee In life, as in death, Edgar Allan Poe evoked a feeling of sympathy from his readership.   Those who knew him well considered him deep, mysterious and contemplative; thus, coupled with the copious tragedies he suffered throughout his life, especially the loss of his first wife Virginia, it is easy to understand how the author brings out the theme of Annabel Lee through personal/setting imagery, repetition of words and rhythm/rhyme.   AnnabelRead MorePoes Poetry Essay1269 Words   |  6 PagesWith fascinating rhyme scheme and an enthralling setting, Edgar Allen Poe draws readers into his dreadfully frightening poems. His poems are best known for being extremely grim and macabre, but with a hint of Romanticism in them. â€Å"The Raven† and â€Å"Annabel Lee† depict Romanticism being described by feelings and imagination. These poems reflect the reality that the author is dealing with different views in the way lovers grieving and the way of dealing with death. He is also able to make two poems that

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Richard Linklater s Boyhood Was A Super Hit American...

Paper Two: Boyhood Director and producer, Richard Linklater’s Boyhood was a super-hit American drama film that was released in the United States in July 11, 2014. Boyhood, to this date is still one of my most favorite movies. It is taken place over a course of ten to eleven years (2002 – 2013). It is about a boy named Mason Evans Jr. who lives with his older sister Samantha Evans, and his single mother Olivia Evans. Mason’s father, Mason Evans Sr. had great impact to Mason Jr. throughout his childhood. What’s spectacular about this movie is that the same actors and actresses were used all throughout the time span. Mason grew up how many ordinary boys do with divorced parents. His mother would get into relationships with other men, but never choose to go back with Mason’s father. The family moves to Houston and his father would sometimes come visit and take him and his sister out to places. It would be easier for Mason if his father and mother got ba ck together – which unfortunately doesn’t happen. You could say that Mason struggles with life as he grows up. He goes through family problems, financial problems, peer pressure, relationship problems, breakups, etc. Now, many teenage boys experience at least one of these problems. That’s just life. Mason doesn’t have to go through too much financial problems, just probably one main one – every family goes through financial problems once in a while. Mason has family problems because his parents are divorced and his mother

Rotten in the State of Denmark Free Essays

Shakespeare’s â€Å"Hamlet† takes place during the Middle Ages in Denmark, though the play is written in the mindset of those living in the duration of the English Renaissance. Elizabethans strongly believed in order restoration in society or else chaos would ensue. In a manner of emphasizing the decay and corruption throughout the play, Shakespeare effectively utilizes figurative language and character development in order to support the concept that â€Å"There is something rotten in the state of Denmark. We will write a custom essay sample on Rotten in the State of Denmark or any similar topic only for you Order Now † The use of metaphors within the play by Shakespeare accentuates the deterioration in Denmark. Hamlet refers to humanity as the â€Å"quintessence of dust† (II, 2, 272). By making the comparison to dust, he proves that he believes humanity to have rotted, thus illustrating that the kingdom is decaying as its people are by a sense of morality and order. Hamlet continues on later in the play to state that â€Å"It will but skin and film the ulcerous place/While rank corruption, mining all within/Infects unseen† (III, 4, 147-148). This further establishes that Denmark is declining as the corruption spreads and is unchecked. Through the metaphorical comparisons, Shakespeare is able to indicate the decay within Denmark. Double entendre usage throughout â€Å"Hamlet† confirms the degeneration of the kingdom’s state. Hamlet makes reference to both the body and life in saying, â€Å"When we have shuffled off this mortal coil/Must give us pause† (III, 1, 66). He means both removing his human flesh and ending his everyday life, signifying the corruption in the kingdom as he wishes to find an easy way out of the troubled state that it is in. Later on, Hamlet mentions Polonius’ body is â€Å"at supper† and informs Claudius that â€Å"We fat all creatures else to fat us, and we fat ourselves for maggots†¦two dishes, but to one table† (IV, 3, 21-24). Supper means both that Polonius is at supper and that he is the supper. In this way, as maggots symbolize decay, it suggests that people fatten animals to feed upon; therefore, they fatten themselves for maggots and are all equal in death, as everyone is food for worms as the body deteriorates. The underlying notion of decomposition through double entendre insinuates that there is corruption within Denmark. Character development is another method in which Shakespeare indicates corrosion in Denmark. In terms of Ophelia, Hamlet describes her as a â€Å"dead dog† and states that â€Å"the sun breeds maggots in a dead dog† (II, 2, 178). By implying that Ophelia is a dead dog that breeds maggots, he indicates both that the sun rots a dead body and maggots feed within, as well as it is an aspersion to her character, since a â€Å"dead dog† is a â€Å"bitch. † Thus, Hamlet portrays the corruption in Ophelia’s character as he insinuates that she is a â€Å"bitch† by utilizing a term that symbolizes decomposition. Later on, Claudius states, â€Å"We have done but greenly/In a hugger-mugger to inter him; poor Ophelia/Divided from herself and her fair judgment† (IV, 5, 82-84). This suggests that Ophelia’s mental state is compromised due to the secrecy of her father’s death, further reinstating that the kingdom is corrupted. The alteration of Ophelia’s character and deterioration of her mental state represents the dwindling of the state of Denmark. The entirety of â€Å"Hamlet† epitomizes Renaissance England society by stressing the notion that without order, chaos will ensue. Shakespeare signifies the mentality of Elizabethans throughout the play through his use of figurative language and character development in order to substantiate that there is, in fact, â€Å"something rotten in the state of Denmark. † How to cite Rotten in the State of Denmark, Papers

Factors affecting Sales Performance of Hotels-Samples for Students

Question: Discuss about the Factors affecting Sales Performance of Hotels and Restaurants in Australia. Answer: Introduction The primary significant features of business in the hotel and restaurant industry are that demand can never be fully managed by the firms. This is attributed to the fact that external factors determine the need for hotels and restaurant, namely preferences of customers, competitive pricing, state of the economy (Sainaghi, Phillips, and Corti, 2013; Wang, Chen Chen, 2012). However, the business performance of the hotels is also affected by internal factors like degree of investment and innovation, the size of the business and workers costs (Sainaghi, Phillips and Corti, 2013). Therefore, to the companies in the hospitality industry to thrive, they must offer quality and high-class customer services. The senior management can establish sales performance cultures by being committed to excellence through their active participation in the progress of lasting associations with the customers (Goetsch and Davis, 2014). Such a culture will reduce the rates of staff turnover and increase thei r satisfaction. The Malcolm Baldridge National Award (MBNQA) went to the Ritz-Carlton hotel corporation of the USA because it delivered high-class services and the best hotel practices in the hospitality industry (Brown, 2013). Evans and Lindsay (2011) suggest that the hotel gained its superior quality because it focused on technological advancement and employee performance. Most of the hotels and restaurants in Australia are well-known tourist centers, for instance, Royal Mail Hotel, Echoes Boutique Hotel and Restaurant Blue Mountains, Altitude Restaurant among others. These hotels and some more provide superior quality services and personalized services and are featured with swimming pools, modern fitness centers, conference halls, indoor and outdoor events. However, in Victoria the prominent hotels that exist there are not up to standard from the perspective of a developed country like Australia even though they might be first class hotels in developing countries. Some of the hotels that were prominent in Victoria decades ago have since gone down despite the advantage of strategic location, space, and resource. This project proposal focuses on providing evidence of the factors that impact the sales output of the hotels and restaurants. Project Obectives This proposal's aim is to find out the factors that affect the performance of sales of hotels and restaurants in Australia. Furthermore, this research analyses the effects of such factors on customers response with the aim of developing an in-depth understanding of the objective Project Scope This study is to cover large hotels and restaurants with a minimum of thirty guest rooms and conference facilities within and without. The target participants shall include employees, top-level managers, and customers within the state of Victoria. Literature Review The service industry is different from the manufacturing industry, and thus the provision of services and products respectively varies widely. For instance, the manufacturing industry uses special offer and huge discounts to increase sales whereas the service industry focuses on the increased levels of customer satisfaction which keeps them loyal. Reece, (2012) asserts that most of the businesses in the service industry retain their customers by offering high-class services. Management of Customer Relationship The perception of service quality by the customer depends on the service they have received and the extent of their satisfaction or expectation (Dabholkar, 2015). A performing organization makes use of customer information after gathering by use of questionnaires and interview with the aim of understanding their needs and then embarks on strategies how to meet them. Angelova and Zekiri, (2011) suggest that businesses should analyze the customers attitudes towards their service delivery and level of customer satisfaction by engaging them. Most of the research indicates that dissatisfied customers talk more about their worst encounter with an organization that their joyful experience (Klee and Westgard, 2014). Existing studies show a connective link between customer loyalty and satisfaction and a connection between organizational performance and loyalty of customer (Siddiqi, 2011). Innovation and productivity The research by Wang et al. (2012) on the hotels in Taiwan found out that the total quality management affected the hotels performance positively and thus established the link between innovation and profitability in the hospitality industry. Sandvik, Duhan, and Sandvik (2014) through their study found out that competitive advantage was majorly attained through innovativeness. The results showed a connected link where innovation positively influenced market demand which further affected profitability positively. Furthermore, Assaf, and Agbola, (2011) in their study on the performance of Australian hotels found out that increase in productivity is mostly influenced by the advancement in technology compared with the effect of labor and capital which is less felt. Organizational planning Practices Proper strategic plans and work systems by the management can offer the business a competitive advantage and thus maximize profits. The implementation of the programs should be done after it is assessed as realistic and viable by the experts and then the manager should be the first to embrace and initiate a campaign towards the employees to adopt and implement them, and the customers will only follow the example (Johnson et al., 2013). Successful compensation programs are essential towards sales performance. Chung, Steenburgh, and Sudhir (2013) researched the connection between compensation and performance of employees. The outcomes indicated that those employees that were frequently rewarded for excellence were more satisfied with their jobs and this was reflected in the quality of customer service which had a positive ripple effect on customer loyalty and sales performance. Creating Employee Loyalty The existing and future Customers are the only ones from whom organizations can create value from. The successful businesses according to are those that acquire new customers while retaining the old ones (Kotler and Armstrong, 2013). Stiff marketing competition in the industry makes the customers rational because of the availability of abundant choice to choose from and thus for a business to survive it must offer unique value its services. The management should support behavioral values by rewarding best performing employees and observe their strengths and weaknesses to align with their capabilities. The administration should seek to motivate the employees by meeting their expectations at the workplace and avoiding unnecessary emotional torture for this will be replicated in their performance. Conceptual Framework Customer Services Most of the big hotels major on the customer satisfaction and development of a strong association with them and thus continually widening their market share, profits and market sustainability. The levels of customer satisfaction, loyalty, and organizational sales are directly associated and significantly increase with the period of customers loyalty (Flint, Blocker, and Boutin, 2011). According to the study by Steven, Dong, and Dresner (2012), most businesses fail because of reduced levels of customer satisfaction. Human and Capital Resources Expert employee skills and sufficient capital funds can affect the performance of hotels as regards to sales by offering adequate services to the customers. Employees that are the well-equipped regarding skills and competence and a positive attitude can be relied upon to provide quality services alongside information technology which can also be a competitive advantage which results in improved performance of the business Steven, Dong, and Dresner (2012). Buller and McEvoy (2012) by showed that human resource in an organization is critical to its general performance. The research found that human resource functions such as training, motivation and work relationships contributed more to the performance of the business. Organizational branding The brand image which is inclusive of the name of a product, visible features and appearance are significant on how the customer makes selective choices from the existing ones in the market. Kaufmann, Panni, and Orphanidou (2012) assert that customer behavior is affected by marketing factors such as availability of goods and services, promotion, image and the characteristics of the consumers. Therefore, the brand is key to the acceptance by customers. Brand/product preference or popularity is affected by the current perception of the quality of services about another provider within the same industry. A high brand image generates customer loyalty and sales in addition to market value (Solomon, 2014). Sales Performance Business sales performance is directly associated with profitability and customer satisfaction. Research shows that organizations with long-time customers have high sales performance than their competitors who enjoy a more significant market share of top customer turnover. Evans and Lindsay (2011) conducted a research and found out that businesses can improve their sales performance to approximately 100% through the retention of 5 percent of their customers more than their competitors with a competitive advantage because the cost of retaining former customers is lower than that of acquiring new customers. Reseach Questions In agreement with the outcomes of the literature review, this study aims to analyze the factors that affect sales performance of hotels and restaurants and the corresponding influence of such factors on customers response in Victoria. Thus, the following research questions are proposed: Primary Question Does organizational branding have any effect on the performance of sales of hotels and restaurants in Victoria? Secondary Hypotheses Does customer services offered in hospitality industry affect the performance of sales of hotels and restaurants in Victoria? What are the influences of the HRM functions on the sales performance of hotels and restaurants? Reseach Design and Methodology Qualitative research The purpose of this qualitative study will be to find out the factors that affect the performance of sales of hotels and restaurants in Victoria. The study will use face-to-face interviews with the employees in the hotels, adapting with work situations. A summarized unstructured interview will be used to try and comprehend fundamental issues regarding the hotels. The perception of the employees regarding their work environment, in general, will be sought for (Saunders, 2011). The gathered data will be recorded down and analyzed later. This proposal expects to sample out fifteen employees out of the target population of all workers from the fifty selected hotels and restaurants. Quantitative research Questionnaires (Appendix 1) shall be used to collect data from all the employees of the fifty selected hotels and restaurants and are to be hand-delivered to the respective employees after granting of permission by the management. The target population is 100 employees from the fifty hotels, with a sample size of twenty employees comprising of five supervisors and fifteen junior workers. The questionnaire shall consist of both open and close-ended questions to enable the participants to give their opinions and to ensure relevancy of the responses respectively. Sales performance is to be taken as the dependent variable whereas customer services, human and capital resources, and organization branding as independent variables. Validity and Reliability To guarantee validity and reliability of the measuring instrument will be used to ensure the responses are not biased. The consistency of each item will be analyzed to ensure the reliability of the responses from the participants. Furthermore, reliability across all independent items will be guaranteed by correlating them with each other. To ensure that the measured content is valid, the instruments will include a representation of specific details. The higher the number of representative items the higher the validity of the content (Csikszentmihalyi and Larson, 2014). Data Analysis Method The collected data through interviews and questionnaires will be checked for reliability and verification did then organized, coded, tabulated and then analyzed to interpret the outcomes in alignment with the formulated research questions. Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS) will be employed in the data analysis and presentation u in the form of charts, graphs for easy interpretation. Research Limitations The projected limitation to the success of this study will be the denial to access the necessary data and personnel in the hotels and restaurants of interest. The success of this study is substantially dependent on the permission of the hotel and restaurant management to interview the staff and the access to some vital information. Furthermore, this study is only restricted to the hotels in Victoria, and thus a generalization of its outcome should be applied cautiously in countries with different levels of economic growth and cultural background. Time Schedule The study is expected to last for approximately one year beginning in November 2017. The expenses associated with the research shall be met by the researcher from its inception to the conclusion. The table below shows the details of each task and period Name of Task Start Date End Date Duration(Days) Project proposal organization 10/10/2017 19/11/2017 40 Literature review 22/11/2017 21/01/2018 60 Data collection process 05/02/2018 05/06/2018 120 Data analysis process 10/06/2018 09/08/2018 60 Report presentation 20/08/2018 19/09/2018 30 Conclusion The hospitality industry keeps changing because it is hugely dependent on the customers whose needs and preferences vary as well with time. The management has the responsibility for monitoring these variations and aligning their service delivery with these changes to achieve the organization's objectives and increase sales performance. Activities such as organizational branding, innovation, and productivity, employee loyalty, etc. are some practices that the management usually undertakes to respond to the changes in customer preferences. References Angelova, B. and Zekiri, J., 2011. Measuring customer satisfaction with service quality using American Customer Satisfaction Model (ACSI Model).International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences,1(3), p.232. Accessed on 05 Oct. 17. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/7bda/a7c64934afa318aa33e7ce6c03dcaacd3bc6.pdf Assaf, A.G. and Agbola, F.W., 2011. Modelling the performance of Australian hotels: a DEA double bootstrap approach.Tourism Economics,17(1), pp.73-89. Brown, M.G., 2013.Baldrige Award Winning Quality--: How to Interpret the Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence. CRC Press. Buller, P.F. and McEvoy, G.M., 2012. Strategy, human resource management and performance: Sharpening line of sight.Human resource management review,22(1), pp.43-56. Chung, D.J., Steenburgh, T. and Sudhir, K., 2013. Do bonuses enhance sales productivity? A dynamic structural analysis of bonus-based compensation plans.Marketing Science,33(2), pp.165-187. Csikszentmihalyi, M. and Larson, R., 2014. Validity and reliability of the experience-sampling method. InFlow and the foundations of positive psychology(pp. 35-54). Springer Netherlands. Dabholkar, P.A., 2015. How to improve perceived service quality by increasing customer participation. InProceedings of the 1990 academy of marketing science (AMS) annual conference(pp. 483-487). Springer, Cham. Evans, R.J. and Landsay, M.W., 2011. The Management and control of quality (8ed.) Flint, D.J., Blocker, C.P. and Boutin, P.J., 2011. Customer value anticipation, customer satisfaction and loyalty: An empirical examination.Industrial marketing management,40(2), pp.219-230. Goetsch, D.L. and Davis, S.B., 2014.Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. International edition Johnson, G., Whittington, R., Scholes, K., Angwin, D. and Regnr, P., 2013.Exploring strategy text cases(Vol. 10). Pearson. Kaufmann, H.R., Panni, M.F.A.K. and Orphanidou, Y., 2012. FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMERS'GREEN PURCHASING BEHAVIOR: AN INTEGRATED CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK.Amfiteatru Economic,14(31), p.50. Klee, G.G. and Westgard, J.O., 2014. 7 Quality Management.Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics-E-Book, p.90. Kotler, P. and Armstrong, G., 2013. Principles of Marketing (16th Global Edition). Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education International Reece, B., 2012.Human relations: principles and practices. Cengage Learning. Sainaghi, R., Phillips, P. and Corti, V., 2013. Measuring hotel performance: Using a balanced scorecard perspectives approach.International Journal of Hospitality Management,34, pp.150-159. Accessed on 05 Oct. 17. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ruggero_Sainaghi/publication/257118235_Measuring_hotel_performance_Using_a_balanced_scorecard_perspectives%27_approach/links/53e07c8a0cf2a768e49f65cf/Measuring-hotel-performance-Using-a-balanced-scorecard-perspectives-approach.pdf Sandvik, I.L., Duhan, D.F. and Sandvik, K., 2014. Innovativeness and profitability: an empirical investigation in the Norwegian hotel industry.Cornell Hospitality Quarterly,55(2), pp.165-185. Accessed on 05 Oct. 17. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Izabela_Sandvik/publication/275592845_Innovativeness_and_Profitability_An_Empirical_Investigation_in_the_Norwegian_Hotel_Industry/links/5759347608ae9a9c954bc102.pdf Saunders, M.N., 2011.Research methods for business students, 5/e. Pearson Education India. Saunders, M.N., 2011.Research methods for business students, 5/e. Pearson Education India. Siddiqi, K.O., 2011. Interrelations between service quality attributes, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in the retail banking sector in Bangladesh.International Journal of Business and Management,6(3), p.12. Accessed on 05 Oct. 17. https://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ijbm/article/viewFile/9689/6943 Solomon, M.R., 2014.Consumer behavior: Buying, having, and being(Vol. 10). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Steven, A.B., Dong, Y. and Dresner, M., 2012. Linkages between customer service, customer satisfaction and performance in the airline industry: Investigation of non-linearities and moderating effects.Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review,48(4), pp.743-754. Wang, C.H., Chen, K.Y. and Chen, S.C., 2012. Total quality management, market orientation and hotel performance: The moderating effects of external environmental factors.International Journal of Hospitality Management,31(1), pp.119-129. Accessed on 05 Oct. 17. https://tweb.cjcu.edu.tw/journal/2014_05_14_10_55_10.327.pdf

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

IT Management and Strategy The Public Sectors

Question: Describe about the IT Management and Strategy for The Public Sectors. Answer: Introduction: The turnover of the IT professionals has become a serious problem in the public sectors, and hence it has become absolutely imperative for the organizations working under the public sector, to reduce the turnover intentions of the IT professionals. It should be noted here, that in the high-technology driven business environment of today, it has become highly important to draft the necessary strategies meant for retaining the IT staffs. It is important to know the strategies that can help in improving the turnover intention of the IT staffs, so that they can work for the organization in a much dedicated and focused way. Employee Retention Strategies : IT Industry by Leena James and Matthew Lissy In the article stated above, the authors identify practical business strategies that can considerably solve the retention problems of the employees. According to James, it is highly important to help the employees feel a sense of belonging, while working in the organization. The management authority of the organizations working under the public sector, should periodically organize various interactive sessions and activity sessions, so that the employees can feel valued and develop good relation with the employees. The IT employees are often left to execute the tiring, monotonous and complex tasks, and hence they lose motivation working for the same organization. Hence, Mathhew points out that the manager should think of volunteering his professional assistance on a difficult project, that may or may not simplify the employees task, but will at least offer him the motivation and co-operation, he is likely to expect from his the officials and other employees. According to this article, although the fact is in most of the cases overlooked, it is important to note that there exists a strong relation of the employees. Hence, it is highly important for the organizations of the public sector to ensure that a positive relation exists between the IT staffs and the management authority. Reframing Retention Strategy: A focus on Progress by Brian Spittle According to Brian Spittle, as stated in this article, the public sector organizations are encountering serious challenges in retaining the valuable and talented employees, simply because of the poor organizational environment, employees are confronted with. The employees are unable to get motivated sufficiently, and the IT staffs are no exception in this. Spittle says that there is a striking absence of job satisfaction among the IT staffs working in the public sectors. A research report has claimed that around 70 % of the employees working in the IT field in any public sector organization, feel discontent with their present jobs. The major reasons attributed to this kind of employment discontent are huge work pressure, undesirable working condition, lack of incentives, and others. Keeping these factors into consideration, it is obvious that the IT workers are unable to feel motivated, as they feel underpaid and yet taxed overmuch with work. This is the reason, they keep on switchin g from one organization to the other. Hence, it would be a discreet idea to improve the salary scheme of the It experts, ad offer them the salary package as per the standard followed by the private industries. The public sector organizations, according to Spittle, are required to introduce motivational strategies, and new incentive schemes, so as to increase the employee engagement of the IT professionals. Professional commitment, organizational commitment, and the intention to leave for professional advancement: An empirical study on IT professionals by Vincent Cho and Xu Huang: Cho and Huang in the above article clearly points out that the public sector employees, especially the IT experts are overpaid at the bottom, while are highly underpaid at the top. As a result, the IT workers of the public sector organizations, in absence of sufficient reward and recognition policies, feel de-motivated with their present job status, and consider switching their organizations. Hence, the first and the foremost point to be noted, is that the organizations are required to revise the motivational strategy of the IT workers. Since, the IT workers play a crucially important role in protecting the data of the organization, it is highly important to offer competitive benefits package to the employees. The organization is required to introduce health insurance schemes and retirement savings plan as well as flexible working hours, so that the employees do not suffer from lack of enthusiasm while working in the organization. Are your IT professionals prepared for the challenges to come?",Computer Fraud Security by S. Mustacha: This article describes the challenges that an IT worker faces while serving an organization. The article claims that the IT workers are usually expected to perpetrate similar kind of works. The repetitive, tedious tasks done in a mechanical fashion by the IT professionals make them feel de-motivated. Hence, it is advisable that the organizations employ effective strategies that help in engaging the employees for a long period of time. Here, Mustacha claims that the organization should also provide short-term benefits, rather than only long-term benefits to the employees. Keeping this in consideration, the organization should introduce small, yet lucrative packages that can attract the attention of the employees, and can keep them successfully engaged. The organization usually offers attractive pension schemes and other long term incentives to the employees. However, such schemes fail to capture the immediate attention of the employees. Hence, the organization should arrange small per ks, such as free bagels on Friday, free pick and delivery systems for Mondays. Besides, it would be a discreet idea to ask the managers to hold and organize events, at periodical intervals, that can revive the energy and motivation of the IT professionals, and encourage them to perform their tasks more effectively in future. Causal Loop Diagrams Model of IT Professionals' Happiness : Through System Dynamics Analysis Approach by Y.H Chang: Unlike the other authors, Chang in this article talks about and emphasizes the importance of job embeddedness. According to the author, this is a situation, where the employees form a profound relation with the organization, so much that even if there are multiple factors encouraging his turnover, he would prefer to continue working in the same organization. Chang suggests that this situation can be developed by creating a favorable relation among the employees and the employer, he manager or the team leader. The employees who are able to enjoy favorable relation with the leaders, are less likely to turnover. Hence, the organization can introduce career development opportunities to the employees, so that they can enjoy the prospect of professional advancement, while working in the organization. Apart from arranging a variety of training programs, offering ample promotional opportunities to the employees, or creating communication plans can help in developing a desirable relation betw een the IT workers and the management authority of the organization. Retention of IT professionals: Examining the influence of empowerment, social exchange, and trust by Erurk and Vurgun: Job satisfaction plays a very important role in the retention policy of the organization. Eruk and Vurgum state here that although a huge number of employees introduce a variety of retention policies in the organization, very few organizations succeed in monitoring the policies and reviewing the consequence of the same. Hence, the reviewing and re-assessing methods meant for evaluating the effectiveness of the motivational policies of the organization is highly important. Hence, the organization is required to hire new HR professionals, who will be assigned to the duty of reviewing the effectiveness of the policies introduced for motivating the IT employees. While the existent HR manager can be entrusted with the duty of implementing the motivational and employee engagement policies, the new HR managers should be employed for reviewing the execution of the same. Conclusion: The role of the IT professionals is undergoing a rapid change, and consequently the employees working in the IT field play a dynamic role. The technical skills and expertise possessed by the IT professionals help in offering substantial business benefits to the organization. From being a technical solution provider, the IT experts in an organization assume the role of a complete transformation partner. Hence, effective strategies must be introduced to ensure maximum satisfaction of the IT workers, so that they do not consider he idea of switching the organization. Reference List: James, L. and Mathew, L. 2012, "Employee Retention Strategies: IT Industry",SCMS Journal of Indian Management,vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 79. Spittle, B. 2013, "Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Progress",New Directions for Higher Education,vol. 2013, no. 161, pp. 27-37. Cho, V. and Huang, X. 2012, "Professional commitment, organizational commitment, and the intention to leave for professional advancement: An empirical study on IT professionals",Information Technology People,vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 31-54. Mustaca, S. 2014, "Are your IT professionals prepared for the challenges to come?",Computer Fraud Security,vol. 2014, no. 3, pp. 18. Chang, Y.H. 2016, "Causal Loop Diagrams Model of IT Professionals' Happiness : Through System Dynamics Analysis Approach",Journal of Internet Computing and Services,vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 161-172. Ertrk, A. and Vurgun, L. 2015, "Retention of IT professionals: Examining the influence of empowerment, social exchange, and trust",Journal of Business Research,vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 34-46.